The History, Evolution, Present State, and Future of Conservation Volunteering in South Africa


Volunteering for good causes has a rich history, evolving over centuries to become a pivotal component of societal development worldwide.


The verb was first recorded in 1755. It was derived from the noun volunteer, in c. 1600, “one who offers himself for military service,” from the Middle French voluntaire. In the non-military sense, the word was first recorded during the 1630s. Source.

In South Africa, a country known for its diverse ecosystems and rich wildlife, conservation volunteering has played a significant role. This article explores the history, evolution, current state, and future of conservation volunteering in South Africa, while addressing the challenges and skepticism within the industry.

History and Evolution

The roots of volunteering in South Africa can be traced back to the early 20th century, with efforts primarily driven by local communities and international conservationists aiming to protect the country’s unique biodiversity. The establishment of national parks, such as Kruger National Park in 1926, marked the beginning of organized conservation efforts.

The post-apartheid era saw a surge in international volunteer programs as South Africa opened its doors to the world. Organizations like Earthwatch and WWF began to collaborate with local entities, promoting conservation through volunteerism. These programs not only aimed to protect wildlife and habitats but also sought to uplift local communities through sustainable practices and education.

Present State

Today, conservation volunteering in South Africa is a well-established sector, attracting thousands of volunteers annually. Programs range from wildlife monitoring and anti-poaching initiatives to community education and habitat restoration. Organizations like The Expedition Project offer structured programs that provide meaningful experiences for volunteers while contributing significantly to conservation efforts.

However, the industry is not without its challenges. Issues such as voluntourism—a form of tourism where volunteers pay to participate in projects—have raised concerns about the true impact and ethical considerations of such programs. Critics argue that some initiatives prioritize profit over genuine conservation efforts, leading to questions about the sustainability and efficacy of these programs.

Problematic Areas and Skepticism

One of the primary concerns in the conservation volunteering sector is the potential exploitation of wildlife and local communities. Instances of unethical practices, such as inadequate training for volunteers and the commercialization of wildlife interactions (e.g., lion cub petting), have cast a shadow over the industry. These practices can undermine conservation goals and harm the very species they aim to protect.

Moreover, there is skepticism regarding the long-term impact of short-term volunteer projects. Critics highlight that short-term volunteering might not contribute significantly to conservation objectives and can sometimes disrupt local ecosystems and communities. The focus on creating an “experience” for volunteers rather than prioritizing genuine conservation efforts has led to a growing distrust among conservationists and the public.

Future Directions

To address these issues, the future of conservation volunteering in South Africa must emphasize transparency, sustainability, and ethical practices. Programs should prioritize long-term commitments and collaborations with local communities to ensure that conservation efforts are genuinely impactful and beneficial.

Organizations are increasingly adopting more stringent guidelines and best practices to ensure ethical volunteering. This includes thorough screening and training of volunteers, focusing on projects that have demonstrable conservation outcomes, and fostering genuine partnerships with local communities.

Technology also offers new opportunities for the sector. The use of drones, camera traps, and data analysis software can enhance conservation efforts, making them more effective and less reliant on the physical presence of volunteers. Additionally, virtual volunteering and citizen science projects are emerging as viable alternatives, allowing individuals to contribute to conservation from anywhere in the world.


Conservation volunteering in South Africa has a rich history and continues to play a crucial role in protecting the country’s biodiversity. However, to ensure its future success, the industry must address ethical concerns and focus on sustainable, impactful practices. By embracing transparency, fostering local partnerships, and leveraging technology, conservation volunteering can continue to evolve and contribute meaningfully to the preservation of South Africa’s natural heritage.

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